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The Marketing Mix

The Marketing Mix

1. History
The term "marketing mix" became popularized after Neil H. Borden published his 1964 article, The Concept of the Marketing Mix.
The ingredients in Borden's marketing mix included product planning, pricing, branding, distribution channels, personal selling, advertising, promotions, packaging, display, servicing, physical handling, and fact finding and analysis.
E. Jerome McCarthy later grouped these ingredients into the four categories that today are known as the 4 P's of marketing.
2. The 4 P’s
The marketing decisions generally fall into the following four controllable categories:

Place (distribution)

Target Market





These four P's are the parameters that the marketing manager can control, subject to the internal and external constraints of the marketing environment. The goal is to make decisions that center the four P's on the customers in the target market in order to create perceived value and generate a positive response.

2.1 Product Decisions
You firstly need to identify who will be interested in buying your products and services, this should be identified once you have analysed the results of the market research. Your market research data will be able to look more closely at what your market wants and then look at your products to see if they are satisfying your customer's needs. Examine your packaging design, materials used, size and quantity. By analysing the market and its requirements, you will be able to change the product or develop the product in order to match the requirements of the people you are aiming at.
You also need to remember that your customer's needs are likely to change and therefore your products should constantly change to reflect each market change, if you ignore these changes your products will no longer be needed or desir...

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