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Internet - Bill Gates


The internet1
The history of the internet
In 1957, the Russians launched the first artificial satellite, which was called Sputnik. This
event flamed up the cold war, because the United States was near hysterics thinking of that
metal ball orbiting the globe overhead. But president D. Eisenhower and the U.S. didn’t want
the Russians to own outer space without a fight. So the Advanced Research Projects Agency
(ARPA) was initiated within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish U.S. lead in
science and technology applicable to the military.
The ARPA focused specially on the development of the at that time fledgling computer
technology. In this case the agency realized, that computers needed greater capability to
interact with each other.
In 1961 the first breakthrough was made by scientists, who made it possible for several people
to use the same computer simultaneously. The process, which has been developed, was called
“time-sharing”. However, the innovation was not a huge success, because the expectations
were too high. Yet it was not possible for the time-sharing user to perform computing tasks on
more than one remote system at a time, and the poor quality of telephone connections would
often cause transmission errors.
In 1966 a new networking project was initiated. The proposal was to connect all computers in
the research community via dial-up telephone lines. At the same time the project became
aware of a number of reports published in 1962 by Paul Baran, as well as unrelated but yet
almost identical pioneering networking experiments conducted in the U.K by Donald Watts.
These concerned the possibilities of using a packet-switching process in order to secure the
survivability of military command and control systems. The principle relied on a peer to peer
computer network, in which all computers had equal status and data-forwarding capabilities.
If a user wanted to transmit data from one computer to another, regar...

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