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Grammatik: Present Perfect / Past simple

Simple Present Perfect:

• Used to stress the result of a past activity on the present
o I have been to your house. Now I’m back again.
• For activities just completed
o I think he’s just arrived
• In questions and statements about whether sth. has ever / yet / so far taken place, especially with expressions of frequency (five times / often / always / never)
o Have you drunk any coffee yet?
• To describe states that began in the past and have continued into the present (for / since / all week / …) and together with clauses of time introduced by since.
o I have never been to America

Present perfect progressive

• Used for activities that began in the past and have continued into the present (for / since / …)
o He’s been living for the length of his life
• For activities that have been going on at intervals (for / since / …) but never with expressions of frequency.
o I’ve been there for years.

Past tense

• States in the past, that are finished
o When we were on holiday in France we went to the Eiffel Tower
• Not seen as related to the present
o Once I saw you at the shop
• To stress a time / period
o This morning at six o’ clock I woke up
• Together with adverbials such as yesterday / last week / one year ago / …
o Yesterday he went to a restaurant

Past progressive

• To stress an event progressing at a certain time in the past
o Today between one and two p.m. I was driving to Berlin.
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