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Inhaltsangabe - Referat


Dieses Referat wurde vom Mitglied Lilu1987 veröffenlicht. ist für die Inhalte der Veröffentlichungen der Mitglieder nicht verantwortlich.


Finland is a state in North-Europe and of course parts of the European Union. It borders on Sweden, Norway, Russia and the Baltic Sea. Finland is only a bit smaller than Germany, but with only 5.3 Million citizens it belongs to the sparsely inhabited countries in Europe. A big part of the population concentrates on the south of Finland with its capital Helsinki. The official local languages are finnish and Swedish. 92% of the population speaks Finish and only 6% Swedish.
The area of Finland, which is sparsely inhabited since thousands of years, joined the historic time with their integration to the Swedish empire, started in the 12th century. For many years they stayed an integral part of Sweden, until it was assigned to Russia in 1809, under this control Finland became a nation. 1917 the land acquired the national independency. Today Finland is a parliamentary republic.


The acreage of Finland amounts to 338,144.53 km², so it?s only a bit smaller than Germany. One third of Finland lies northerly to the polar circle, because of this it belongs to the northernmost countries of the world.

The longest national border is 1,269km the border to the russian confederation in the east. In the north Finland borders about 716km to Norway, the 536km long border to Sweden in the northeast is build by the rivers Könkämäeno, Muonionjoli and Tornionjoki.

In the west and south Finland adjoins to adjacent seas of the Baltic Sea, in the west to the Gulf of Bothnia and in the south to the Gulf of Finland. Nearly all Finish rivers and seas belong to the catchment area of the Baltic Sea, only the one beyond the Maanselkä lying veriest northeast of the country drains in the Arctic Ocean. Because of the minor evaporation and the constant freshwater inflow are the seawaters of Finland basic less salty than the world?s oceans.

The most prominent attribute of the landscape of Finland is the richness of seas, which gave the land the surname ?Land of the thousand seas?. The aggregate length of coastline of the Finish seas amounts at least 186700km, the number of the lake islands totals 98050.

You can split Finland in five scenic areas, once there is the coastal plain of Southfinland, the coastal plain Österbottens, the Finish lowland plain full of lakes in the interior, the Finish down in the east and at least Lapland in the north.


The Finish climate is cold-temperate. The weather in Finland can be diversified for example is it not spectacular to have rain and sunshine on one and the same day. Typical is also fast changing of the weather from one day to the next.

The weather- and light conditions of the Finish summer as well as of the winter affect to the visitors from southern latitudes exotic and belong to the touristic attractiveness of the land.


The roots of early Finish population and language aren?t really known yet, but we can assume that the first inhabitants lived in this area at the end of the last Ice Age about 8500 before Chr.
In Stone Age they survived as hunters and food-gatherers, till immigrants from different directions implemented agriculture, later also stockbreeding. Trading with Middle Europe, especially Baltic trade developed since 100 before Chr. and increased during the Migration Period. This and the Viking Age brought prosperity to the coastal area. In the Middle Ages Eastern Finland enforced trading activities with Novgorod (today: Russia). All these connections leaded to contacts with Christian religion ? Catholicism in the West and Orthodox in the East of Finland.
Since the 12th Century, Sweden and Novgorod struggled for exclusive power about Finland. Gradually, after some militarily invasions, Western Finland became bounded to Sweden. In the 18th Century, Sweden lost its powerful position because of different wars, and Finland was occupied by Russia. Finland became a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire, but it was an almost independent part of it and kept its old Swedish laws and orders.
During the first half of the 19th Century, under the Russian tsar Finland stayed in a kind of political rigidity. At the same time Finish people rediscovered their national identity, and under the permissive reign of Tsar Alexander II and the beginning of industrialization - especially lumber industry ? some movement came into Finish politics, and the convening of the diet became allowed again.
The reign of Tsar Nikolas II stopped political activities by centralization again, and Finland?s autonomy was restricted again. The political conflicts leaded into an intensification that reached its climax in a general strike during the October revolution in 1905. After that, Nikolas II reassured autonomy to Finland. As the first country in Europe, voting rights were proclaimed for men and women in 1906. After the end of tsarist, the Bolshevistic Russia and other states accepted the independence of Finland.
During the 2nd ...

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