Inhaltsangabe - Referat
ARBORIGINES - THE NATIVE AUSTRALIAN
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1. Description of the word ?Aborigines?
Where did they live?
Works they did
Rights for Aborigines
4. The ?dreamtime?
5. Traditional things of the Aborigines
storytelling, art and the Didgeridoo
6. Aborigines today
7. Declaration of independence
1. Description of the word Aborigines
Aborigines are Australians indigenous people. The name ?aborigine?
( ab= from, origin = beginning) comes from the Latin, meaning ?original inhabitants?, ?the first? or ?earliest known?. The word was first used in Italy and Greece to describe people, natives or old inhabitants who lived there, not newcomers or invaders.
Australia?s prehistory goes back some 47.000 years when it is believed that the first people crossed the sea from South East Asia. They came with some kind of water craft and reached so the southern continent.
This sea voyage is the earliest evidence* of sea travel by prehistoric man.
After the moving across the sea stopped, the Aborigines based* a big culture
2.1 Where did they live?
The Aborigines usually lived in desert, inland areas, the coast and Tasmania.
The Aborigines who lived in the desert or inland ate insects, birds, reptiles and mammals*. They also ate lots of fruit. The Aborigines at the coast ate roots* fruits, small animals, reptiles, fish and shellfish.
2.2 Works they did
Aborigines lived in family groups and clans with about 50 members. Each clan had a place on their land where their spirits returned* when they died. They had to protect these places so they didn?t want to upset their ancestral* beings.
The men were custodians*, tool-makers and hunters. The women took care of the children and gathered* and fixed their food. The Aborigines used the land wisely* and knew when to harvest* the many plants they ate. Dingoes guarded* their homes and helped the men hunt. The Aborigines were also traders*. There were trade routes across the country. They traded stones, shells and boomerangs. Along these trade routes they would have exchange ceremonies where they traded,
*voyage: Reise *ancestral: ererbt *trader: Händler
*custodian: Tierhüter *evidence: Beweis *to guard: schützen
*to base: gründen *wise: klug
*mammal: Säugetier *to harvest: ernten
*to return: zurückkehren *root: Wurzel
Before the first contact between Aborigines and Europeans, it is estimated* that between 250.000 and 1 million people lived in Australia and about 250 different languages were spoken. Recent* government statistics counted about 425.500 (status: year 2006) aboriginal people, or about 2.6 % of Australia?s total population.
Because they didn?t have a system of government, no permanent settlement, and no land ownership, the British made them move. Many of the Aborigines got, because of the Europeans, smallpox*, measles*, whooping cough*, pneumonia* and tuberculosis* and died. European invaders cut down forests and brought foreign animals to Australia. By 1860 there were 20 million sheep in Australia. The cattle* and sheep destroyed the Aborigines? water holes. White settlers and Aborigines were at war for the land and water. By 1900, traditional Aboriginal society* was still in small groups in central and northern Australia.
3.1 Rights for Aborigines
In the early 1900?s, laws to protect the Aborigines were passed in every state. They also made restrictions* for the Aborigines on owning land, where they could live and even to whom* they could marry. In 1967 the Australians voted Aborigines real citizens*. They were given the some rights as everyone else.
*to estimate: schätzten *cattle: Rinder
*smallpox: Pocken *society: Gesellschaft
*measles: Masern *restriction: Einschränkungen
*pneumonia: Lungenentzündung *whom: wen
*tuberculosis: Tuberkulose *real citizens: echte Bürger
*whooping cough: Keuchhusten
4. The ?dreamtime?
The Aborigines comprised 500-600 distinct groups. Some names of the groups are Aranda, Gunwinggu, Kamilaroi, Tiwi, Wailbri and in every group they believe in the ?dreamtime?.
Aboriginal spirituality had a close relationship between humans* and the land. Aborigines called it the beginning ?Dreamtime?. In the ?Dreamtime? aboriginal forebears* came from below* the earth to form various* parts of nature animal species, bodies of water and the sky. Unlike other religious, however aboriginal belief did not place the human species apart from or on a higher level than nature. Aborigines believed that some of the forebears change into nature (as in rock formations or rivers), where they remained* spiritually alive.
*to involve: beteiligt *forebears: Vorfahren
*humans: Menschen ...