Referat - Finnland
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Finland is a state in North-Europe and of course parts of the European Union. It borders on Sweden, Norway, Russia and the Baltic Sea. Finland is only a bit smaller than Germany, but with only 5.3 Million citizens it belongs to the sparsely inhabited countries in Europe. A big part of the population concentrates on the south of Finland with its capital Helsinki. The official local languages are finnish and Swedish. 92% of the population speaks Finish and only 6% Swedish.
The area of Finland, which is sparsely inhabited since thousands of years, joined the historic time with their integration to the Swedish empire, started in the 12th century. For many years they stayed an integral part of Sweden, until it was assigned to Russia in 1809, under this control Finland became a nation. 1917 the land acquired the national independency. Today Finland is a parliamentary republic.
The acreage of Finland amounts to 338,144.53 km², so it’s only a bit smaller than Germany. One third of Finland lies northerly to the polar circle, because of this it belongs to the northernmost countries of the world.
The longest national border is 1,269km the border to the russian confederation in the east. In the north Finland borders about 716km to Norway, the 536km long border to Sweden in the northeast is build by the rivers Könkämäeno, Muonionjoli and Tornionjoki.
In the west and south Finland adjoins to adjacent seas of the Baltic Sea, in the west to the Gulf of Bothnia and in the south to the Gulf of Finland. Nearly all Finish rivers and seas belong to the catchment area of the Baltic Sea, only the one beyond the Maanselkä lying veriest northeast of the country drains in the Arctic Ocean. Because of the minor evaporation and the constant freshwater inflow are the seawaters of Finland basic less salty than the world’s oceans.
The most prominent attribute of the landscape of Finland is the richness of seas, which gave the land the surname “Land of the thousand seas”. The aggregate length of coastline of the Finish seas amounts at least 186700km, the number of the lake islands totals 98050.
You can split Finland in five scenic areas, once there is the coastal plain of Southfinland, the coastal plain Österbottens, the Finish lowland plain full of lakes in the interior, the Finish down in the east and at least Lapland in the north.
The Finish climate is cold-temperate. The weather in Finland can be diversified for example is it not spectacular to have rain and sunshine on one and the same day. Typical is also fast changing of the weather from one day to the next.
The weather- and light conditions of the Finish summer as well as of the winter affect to the visitors from southern latitudes exotic and belong to the touristic attractiveness of the land.
The roots of early Finish population and language aren’t really known yet, but we can assume that the first inhabitants lived in this area at the end of the last Ice Age about 8500 before Chr.
In Stone Age they survived as hunters and food-gatherers, till immigrants from different directions implemented agriculture, later also stockbreeding. Trading with Middle Europe, especially Baltic trade developed since 100 before Chr. and increased during the Migration Period. This and the Viking Age brought prosperity to the coastal area. In the Middle Ages Eastern Finland enforced trading activities with Novgorod (today: Russia). All these connections leaded to contacts with Christian religion – Catholicism in the West and Orthodox in the East of Finland.
Since the 12th Century, Sweden and Novgorod struggled for exclusive power about Finland. Gradually, after some militarily invasions, Western Finland became bounded to Sweden. In the 18th Century, Sweden lost its powerful position because of different wars, and Finland was occupied by Russia. Finland became a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire, but it was an almost independent part of it and kept its old Swedish laws and orders.
During the first half of the 19th Century, under the Russian tsar Finland stayed in a kind of political rigidity. At the same time Finish people rediscovered their national identity, and under the permissive reign of Tsar Alexander II and the beginning of industrialization - especially lumber industry – some movement came into Finish politics, and the convening of the diet became allowed again.
The reign of Tsar Nikolas II stopped political activities by centralization again, and Finland’s autonomy was restricted again. The political conflicts leaded into an intensification that reached its climax in a general strike during the October revolution in 1905. After that, Nikolas II reassured autonomy to Finland. As the first country in Europe, voting rights were proclaimed for men and women in 1906. After the end of tsarist, the Bolshevistic Russia and other states accepted the independence of Finland.
During the 2nd World War Finland was attacked by the Soviet Union in 1939 and lost Karelia. When Hitler proclaimed war to Russia, Finland cooperated with Germany and occupied Karelia and East Karelia again, but in 1944 the Finish had to retreat and were forced to make peace with Russia. German soldiers destroyed great parts of Lapland. The war ended on April 27th, when the last German soldiers retreated from Kilpisjärvi.
After the war and especially during the Cold War Finland’s part between the Eastern and Western blocs was a very special one: In spite of its independence and strict neutrality, the Soviet Union kept on its influence in Finish affairs, and these efforts were strengthened by the affirmative politics of the Finish presidents until the breakdown of the Eastern bloc. In the time from 1956 – 1982, Urho Kekkonen was the most considerable president of Finland – a man with an autocratic managerial style. After all, the credits for the success in the KSZE Conference of Helsinki belong to him.
The end of the Soviet Union implicated for Finland a heavy economical crisis. At the same time, regarding foreign affairs Finland’s influence became stronger, and in 1995 its full membership in the European Union was signed. Since 2002 the Finish Mark has been replaced by the Euro.
Finland has about 5.3 million habitants and is with a populousness of about 15.5 citizens each square kilometer sparsely inhabited. The population is really unequally distributed. With 1.9 habitants each square kilometer the northern province Lapland is nearly devoided of humans, 40 percent of the population concentrate with about 62.6 citizens each square kilometer on the province Southern Finland. 1.233 million people live in the wider area of Helsinki. Additional megalopolises are the towns Tampere, Turku and Oulu with their commuter belts.
The population development of Finland until today is minted from a constant drift to the cities. During 2005 there were countrywide about 36 percent of the inhabitants under the age of 30, but for example, the east Finish town Suomussalmi rests with only 28 percent. Altogether the Finish population structure shows a drift to aging. The birthrate with 1.74 children each women is higher than the European average, but this is not enough to balance the aging of the baby-boom generation from 1946 to 1949.
Actually, the population development shows a gentle advance tendency. The influx of foreigners let us expect there will be stagnation till 2030 come a decline in population.
The foreigner amount of about 2 pt in comparison with the neighbor countries Norway and Sweden seems humble, but since the end of the cold war it already has multiplied. The reason for this low cipher is for one thing the restrictive immigration policy of the Finish state, for another thing Finland itself was an emigrant country at the time of the big labour migration in the first decades of the post-war period commercical poor.
Today 10000 to 15000 habitants leave Finland annually, a deficit, which is overcompensated through the immigration of nearly 20000 people.
Since 1923 the Finish condition guarantees religious liberty. The evangelic Lutheran and the Orthodox Church are established in the law as people’s church and have several rights. The majority of the Finns belong to the evangelic Lutheran Church of Finland. In the year 2006 this church had 4,366,255 members, which is over 83 percent of the total population.
About 60000 people (1.1 percent) in 24 communities belong to the since 1923 autonomic Orthodox Church of Finland. The immigration of Russian Christians leaded to an increasing number of orthodox Christians since 1990.
Constitution and Legal System of Finland
Since March 1st 2000 Finland has a changed constitution. The authority of the dominating president has been minimized, and Finland today is a democratic republic.
The Finish parliament is responsible for the laws. 2oo delegates are voted for a period of four years by the Finish citizens from the age of 18, and everyone has to give his vote directly for a candidate.
The premier is voted directly by the parliament for a period of six years. All other members of the government get appointed after being advised by the premier.
Traditionally, in Finland grand coalitions are normal, despite the majority of the great parties wouldn’t make them necessary. Actually, the Finish parliament is build out of a coalition of four parties.
The main functions of the Finish president are the leading of foreign affairs. He also is the chief of the military, and he’s allowed to appoint judges and higher state officials. Instead of a constitutional court like in Germany, in Finland regular courts prove the correctness of the official work.
Because of historical reasons the Finish judgment is mainly influenced by Swedish law.
There are three main political parties in Finland:
-Suomen Keskusta (Center Party)
-Kansalinnen Kokooomus (National Collection)
- Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue (Social Democratic Party)
Other parties are comparable with those parties in Europe following contents like bionomical or Christian aims. Before the voting in 2006, about 19 political parties were notified.
Safety- and defence policy
The Finish safety- and defence policy is deeply coined of the experiences related to the Second Worl War. In the collective memory is the opinion deep rooted, that on allies is no reliance and the national defence in the event of war under one’s own steam should be warranted. The defence policy is justified on a total advocacy of the national authority, territorial integrity and democratic constitution of the country.
Finland was because of the deference to the Russian interests in its foreign-policy agency badly conditioned, but the defence-ability of the state could be retained. In this fact 520000 men could be under arms.
Also after the breakdown of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War Finland abides on the alliance-freedom, but the doctrine of the strict neutrality had to abate the active western policy.
Finland is since the post-war era a bold welfare state. Unemployed get assistance in terms of day-to-day accommodation. These financial means are free from the earning the persons had before. The pension annuity for people in work is arranged as a public compulsory insurance. The employers are obligated to pay two-third of the insurance contributions. People who have no claim to annuity get if they become old or can’t do their job anymore get a so called folk-annuity.
The Finish healthcare is also build on a national guaranteed minimum income. The accommodation of doctors is cleared by tax and national organized. Every citizen has to go to the relevant board of health. A free choice of the doctor is within the scope of the public accommodation not possible. The narrowness of the recourses brings partially month of waiting lists for not essential operations with it.
A topic which is often discussed is the alcohol-policy, because alcohol was in the year 2005 most abundant cause of health beneath Finns in the employable age.
Finland counts in the criminality to the safest country in Europe.
Environmentalism and energy policy
About one tenth of the land area of Finland stands under conservation of different classes. Altogether there are 35 national parks with a total area of 8,150km². Two of these are the Lemmenjoki- and the Urho-Kekkonen-national park, which are each over 2500 km² big.
The greenhouse-gas-ejection a head belongs with 16 tons CO2-equipollent to the worldwide highest.
Educational System in Finland
Since the so-called “PISA - Study”, which was published by the OECD in 2004, the Finish Schools became famous because of their remarkable results. Beneath pupils from Japan, Korea, Canada and the Netherland, worldwide Finish boys and girls were placed as one of the top groups. Some possible reasons for this over-average position were made out:
A high tradition in reading literature
The homogeneity of the Finish community
The distinguished personal and financial environment of Finish schools
The autonomy of Finish schools
The efficiency of quality controls
And last not least, most foreign TV programs are not synchronized but shown with subtitles, so everyone watching TV has to read and understand them.
Critiques pointed out that probably another cause is the extreme low average of immigrants in Finish society. Also remarkable were the inferior results of the Swedish minority at Finish schools.
The Finish themselves weren’t as lucky about their PISA – results: The exploration showed that Finish boys and girls are very different in reading, and worst of all, one result of this study was the fact that Finish pupils aren’t really keen on visiting school.
Nevertheless, PISA made the German nation believe that Finish schools are the best all over the world.
History of the Finish Educational System
Since 1921 Finland has compulsory school attendance for all children. In 1968 parliament decided to insert an integrative school system and developed so-called integrative schools in the time from 1972 till 1977. These integrative schools include the classes from 1 to 9. Since 1999 one teacher leads his class from the 1st to the 6t class. After that a specialist subject teacher has to lead the class for the last three years.
Marks aren’t given in the first four years, and from the 7th class on marks are facultative. At least, once a year teachers have to write a report about every pupil. The examination is the essential condition for further education.
Two educational tribes are following after these years:
Secondary education at a grammar school, leading to a secondary school leaving examination (Abitur)
Vocational -oriented upper secondary school, leading to a vocational graduation
For grammar school pupils have to qualify in an entrance test. They become educated in courses for further three years. About 90% of all youth in Finland reach the “Abitur”, 60% of them are girls. Compared with Germany, ther...
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